Blacklisted Ingredients

All # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

1,4-dioxane 

A contaminant that is not required to be listed on an ingredient label in the US.  It is a by-product of the ethoxylation process in which carcinogenic ethylene oxide is reacted with other ingredients to make them less harsh on the skin. The EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) has classified 1,4-dioxane as likely to be carcinogenic to humans.  The FDA studies showed that 1,4-dioxane can penetrate human skin. 1,4-dioxane can be reduced or removed from a product through the vacuum-stripping process. However, independent tests show that many manufacturers fail to do so.  


Sources: 

https://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductsIngredients/PotentialContaminants/ucm101566.htm

http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/14-dioxane/

https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=953&tid=199

https://www.organicconsumers.org/press/ocas-new-study-finds-greatly-reduced-carcinogens-personal-care-products

2-Bromo-2-Nitropropane-1,3-Diol (Bromopol)

An antimicrobial preservative that slowly releases carcinogenic formaldehyde into a product over time (see Formaldehyde).  People may develop a contact allergy to formaldehyde or to the ingredient itself.  The American Society of Contact Dermatitis lists 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol as one of the allergens even in concentrations as low as 0.5%.  In the presence of amines (such as triethanolamine, diethanolamine, and morpholine) in a product, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol can form nitrosamines, which can penetrate the skin and increase the risk of cancer. Longer storage times and higher temperatures increase the amount of formaldehyde released from 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, which can lead to higher risks of health problems.


Sources:

http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/700019/2-BROMO-2-NITROPROPANE-1%2C3-DIOL_%28FORMALDEHYDE_RELEASER%29/#

http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/formaldehyde/

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr208.pdf

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/formaldehyde.html

https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3563


Aluminum Hydroxide (Additional Names: CI 77002)

Used in many types of cosmetics and personal care products as a colorant.  The carcinogenic risk from aluminum and its compounds has not been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).  However, IARC has classified “aluminum production” as carcinogenic to humans.  Aluminum is a pro-oxidant and could significantly increase the potential for oxidative skin damage.


Sources:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2782734/


https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/08/070812084458.htm

Animal Fats, Oils, and Musks

Fats, oils, and musks commonly used to make cosmetic products can be derived from animals. We love animals and do not use these ingredients.  In fact, we do not use any musks (see Synthetic Musks) at all.  Our products are vegan with the exception of products that contain humanely sourced, organic beeswax. 

Benzalkonium Chloride (Additional Names: Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride) 

Used as a foaming and cleansing agent or as an antimicrobial preservative. It is a well-recognized irritant, and there is evidence that it may cause a contact allergy at concentrations as low as 0.1%.  It decreased fertility in both sexes of mice when benzalkonium chloride was used to clean their cages.  


Sources: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623814001920

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18503686

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr142.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Benzalkonium+Chloride%3A+A+Known+Irritant+and+Novel+Allergen+%3A+Dermatitis

Benzophenones (Additional Names: Benzophenone-1, Benzophenone-2, Benzophenone-3 aka Oxybenzone, Benzophenone-4, Benzophenone-5, Benzophenone-6 Benzophenone-8, Benzophenone-9, Benzophenone-11, Benzophenone-12)

Benzophenones are photostabilizers used in cosmetics.  Photostabilizers have a photoprotective effect on the skin.  In 2012, benzophenone was added as a carcinogen to the California EPA’s Proposition 65 List of Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.  The evidence linking the benzophenone chemicals to endocrine disruption is complex, and studies show that different benzophenones may have difference hormone-disrupting effects.  Because they commonly cause contact allergic dermatitis, benzophenones were declared the Contact Allergen of the Year for 2014 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS).



Sources:

https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/p65122917_0.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4997468/

http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/benzophenone/

https://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/allergy-to-benzophenone/

https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3467

Benzyl Alcohol

An aromatic alcohol used as a solvent, a fragrance component, and, in higher concentrations, as a broad-spectrum preservative in beauty products.  It is known to cause contact allergy in some people.  The American Society of Contact Dermatitis lists benzyl alcohol as one of the core allergens in concentrations of 10%.


Sources:

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/PR574.pdf

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr323.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16536335

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8593115

http://www.dermatitisacademy.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/BenzylAlcohol.pdf

https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3563


Benzylparaben: is a broad-spectrum preservative. There is evidence that it can trigger growth responses in estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells. The injections of benzylparaben were also shown to increase the weight of the uterus in mice, which indicates it may be hormone-disrupting. 


Sources:

https://www.ewg.org/sites/humantoxome/chemicals/chemical.php?chemid=90009

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/jsp/CIRList.jsp?id=404

Darbre, P., Byford, J., Shaw, L., Hall, S., Coldham, N., Pope, G., & Sauer, M. (2003). Oestrogenic activity of benzylparaben. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 23(1), 43-51.

BHA (Butylated Hydroxyanisole)

A preservative often used as an antioxidant in cosmetic products, especially lipstick and eyeshadow. The U.S. National Toxicology Program, a part of the National Institutes of Health, has classified BHA as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" based on evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.  BHA has been added as a carcinogen to the California EPA’s Proposition 65 List of Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. Moreover, studies show that BHA exhibits some endocrine-disrupting effects, and the European Union has listed it as an endocrine disruptor.


Sources:

https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/content/profiles/butylatedhydroxyanisole.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4462476/

https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/p65122917_0.pdf

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/endocrine/strategy/substances_en.htm

BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene)

A toluene-based ingredient used as a preservative in food and personal care products. There is a lot of controversy surrounding BHT because of its suspected potential endocrine-disrupting and carcinogenic effects. 


Sources:

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3203/50af38be626d835d9572788fbc2dcb646e63.pdf

https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/lt_rpts/tr150.pdf

Bismuth Oxychloride


 A mineral used as a makeup colorant that provides a shiny effect.  Anecdotally, we hear that some people may break out or itch from bismuth oxychloride.  While there are no scientific studies to attest to that, we prefer to err on the side of caution and offer makeup without this mineral.


Sources

https://www.livestrong.com/article/248442-makeup-for-sensitive-acne-prone-skin/

https://rosacea-support.org/community/viewtopic.php?t=127

http://greenbeautyteam.com/answers-advice/makeup/ingredients-mineral-makeup-terrible-arent/

Bisphenol A (BPA)


A plasticizer in polycarbonate plastic that can be used to package cosmetic products.  BPA may leach from the plastic into the product we apply on our skin.  At Crunchi, we do not use any polycarbonate plastic for packaging. The FDA has banned BPA in baby bottles, sippy cups, and in the packaging for infant formula based on some evidence of its effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A.  BPA has been added to the California EPA’s Proposition 65 List of Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.


Sources:


https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm064437.htm#regulations


https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/programs/endocrine/bpa_initiatives/index.cfm


https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/p65122917_0.pdf


Borax (Additional Names: Boric Acid, Sodium Borate, Sodium Tetraborate or Disodium Tetraborate)

A preservative, emulsifier, and pH adjuster in cosmetics and personal care products. It is also used as a pesticide that poisons insects, fungus, and weeds. At high doses, Boric Acid causes testicular atrophy, impaired fetal skeletal development, and decreased birth weight in animals. In Europe, sodium borate and boric acid are not allowed to be used on peeling or irritated skin or in products for children under 3 years due to absorption concerns.


Sources:

https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0062-0004

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27466210

https://www.ewg.org/enviroblog/2011/02/borax-not-green-alternative-its-cracked-be#.WsqkjGaZPOQ

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr215.pdf

Boric Acid (Additional Names: Borax, Sodium Borate, Sodium Tetraborate or Disodium Tetraborate)


A preservative, emulsifier, and pH adjuster in cosmetics and personal care products.  It is also used as a pesticide that poisons insects, fungus, and weeds.  At high doses, Boric Acid causes testicular atrophy, impaired fetal skeletal development, and decreased birth weight in animals.  In Europe, sodium borate and boric acid are not allowed to be used on peeling or irritated skin or in products for children under 3 years due to absorption concerns.

 

Sources:

https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0062-0004

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27466210

https://www.ewg.org/enviroblog/2011/02/borax-not-green-alternative-its-cracked-be#.WsqkjGaZPOQ

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr215.pdf

Butoxyethanol (Additional Name: 2-Butoxyethanol)


Used as a solvent in hair dyes, nail polishes, lacquers, vanishes, and inks.  In one study, people exposed to high levels of 2-butoxyethanol for several hours reported irritation of the nose and eyes, headache, a metallic taste in their mouths, and vomiting.  Animal studies show destruction of red blood cells and damage to organs from exposure to butoxyethanol. 

Source:  

https://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_095.pdf

https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=346&tid=61

Butylparaben


In the paraben family of preservatives used in beauty products.  Butylparaben may mimic estrogen and act as a potential hormone (endocrine) system disruptor.  It has also been reported to have adverse effects on the male reproductive system in animal studies.

Sources:

https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/chem_background/exsumpdf/butylparaben_508.pdf

http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_041.pdf

http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/parabens/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29433019

Carbon Black (Additional Names: CI 77266, Black 2, D&C Black No. 2, acetylene black, channel black furnace black, lamp black, thermal black)


A black powder used as a pigment in cosmetics.  It is manufactured by the combustion of aromatic petroleum oil feedstock and consists essentially of pure carbon.  The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified it as possibly carcinogenic to humans.  It may contain carcinogenic PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) as a contaminant.  


Sources:

https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol93/mono93.pdf


http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/carbon-black/


https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=74.2052


https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_144.pdf


https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=13&po=11

Coal Tar


A thick liquid obtained as a by-product in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal at very high temperatures.  It is believed that over 10,000 different compounds make up coal tar, but only 400 have been identified.  It is used as a biocide to treat various skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis, and dandruff.  Coal tar has been found to be comedogenic and a contact allergen.  Moreover, it is known to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans.


Sources:

https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/content/profiles/coaltars.pdf

https://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/coal-tar/

https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/substances/coal-tar

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr281.pdf



Cocamidopropyl Betaine


A surfactant that makes cleansing products lather.  It is known to cause allergic skin reactions in some people.  The American Society of Contact Dermatitis lists cocamidopropyl betaine as one of the core allergens, even in concentrations as low as 1%.  Due to high rates of cases involving allergic reactions, it was named the 2004 Allergen of the Year by the American Contact Dermatitis Society.  In certain conditions, it may break down and form nitrosamines associated with increased cancer risks.


Sources:


https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3467


http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/cocamidopropyl-betaine-0


http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/nitrosamines


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15573641


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18627690


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4103018/


https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3563





Diazolidinyl Urea


An antimicrobial preservative that slowly releases carcinogenic formaldehyde into a product over time (see Formaldehyde).  People may develop a contact allergy to formaldehyde or to the ingredient itself.  The American Society of Contact Dermatitis lists diazolidinyl urea and formaldehyde as contact allergens, even in concentrations as low as 1%.  Longer storage time and higher temperatures increase the amount of formaldehyde released from diazolidinyl urea, which can lead to higher risks of health problems.

Sources:

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr137.pdf

http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/formaldehyde/

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/formaldehyde.html

https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3563

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