Blacklisted Ingredients

All # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Benzalkonium Chloride (Additional Names: Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride) 

Used as a foaming and cleansing agent or as an antimicrobial preservative. It is a well-recognized irritant, and there is evidence that it may cause a contact allergy at concentrations as low as 0.1%.  It decreased fertility in both sexes of mice when benzalkonium chloride was used to clean their cages.  


Sources: 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623814001920

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18503686

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr142.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Benzalkonium+Chloride%3A+A+Known+Irritant+and+Novel+Allergen+%3A+Dermatitis

Benzophenones (Additional Names: Benzophenone-1, Benzophenone-2, Benzophenone-3 aka Oxybenzone, Benzophenone-4, Benzophenone-5, Benzophenone-6 Benzophenone-8, Benzophenone-9, Benzophenone-11, Benzophenone-12)

Benzophenones are photostabilizers used in cosmetics.  Photostabilizers have a photoprotective effect on the skin.  In 2012, benzophenone was added as a carcinogen to the California EPA’s Proposition 65 List of Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.  The evidence linking the benzophenone chemicals to endocrine disruption is complex, and studies show that different benzophenones may have difference hormone-disrupting effects.  Because they commonly cause contact allergic dermatitis, benzophenones were declared the Contact Allergen of the Year for 2014 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS).



Sources:

https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/p65122917_0.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4997468/

http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/benzophenone/

https://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/allergy-to-benzophenone/

https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3467

Benzylparaben: is a broad-spectrum preservative. There is evidence that it can trigger growth responses in estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cells. The injections of benzylparaben were also shown to increase the weight of the uterus in mice, which indicates it may be hormone-disrupting. 


Sources:

https://www.ewg.org/sites/humantoxome/chemicals/chemical.php?chemid=90009

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/jsp/CIRList.jsp?id=404

Darbre, P., Byford, J., Shaw, L., Hall, S., Coldham, N., Pope, G., & Sauer, M. (2003). Oestrogenic activity of benzylparaben. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 23(1), 43-51.

BHA (Butylated Hydroxyanisole)

A preservative often used as an antioxidant in cosmetic products, especially lipstick and eyeshadow. The U.S. National Toxicology Program, a part of the National Institutes of Health, has classified BHA as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" based on evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.  BHA has been added as a carcinogen to the California EPA’s Proposition 65 List of Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity. Moreover, studies show that BHA exhibits some endocrine-disrupting effects, and the European Union has listed it as an endocrine disruptor.


Sources:

https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/content/profiles/butylatedhydroxyanisole.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4462476/

https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/p65122917_0.pdf

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/endocrine/strategy/substances_en.htm

BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene)

A toluene-based ingredient used as a preservative in food and personal care products. There is a lot of controversy surrounding BHT because of its suspected potential endocrine-disrupting and carcinogenic effects. 


Sources:

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3203/50af38be626d835d9572788fbc2dcb646e63.pdf

https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/lt_rpts/tr150.pdf

Bismuth Oxychloride


 A mineral used as a makeup colorant that provides a shiny effect.  Anecdotally, we hear that some people may break out or itch from bismuth oxychloride.  While there are no scientific studies to attest to that, we prefer to err on the side of caution and offer makeup without this mineral.


Sources

https://www.livestrong.com/article/248442-makeup-for-sensitive-acne-prone-skin/

https://rosacea-support.org/community/viewtopic.php?t=127

http://greenbeautyteam.com/answers-advice/makeup/ingredients-mineral-makeup-terrible-arent/

Bisphenol A (BPA)


A plasticizer in polycarbonate plastic that can be used to package cosmetic products.  BPA may leach from the plastic into the product we apply on our skin.  At Crunchi, we do not use any polycarbonate plastic for packaging. The FDA has banned BPA in baby bottles, sippy cups, and in the packaging for infant formula based on some evidence of its effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A.  BPA has been added to the California EPA’s Proposition 65 List of Chemicals Known to the State to Cause Cancer or Reproductive Toxicity.


Sources:


https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/PublicHealthFocus/ucm064437.htm#regulations


https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/programs/endocrine/bpa_initiatives/index.cfm


https://oehha.ca.gov/media/downloads/proposition-65/p65122917_0.pdf


Borax (Additional Names: Boric Acid, Sodium Borate, Sodium Tetraborate or Disodium Tetraborate)

A preservative, emulsifier, and pH adjuster in cosmetics and personal care products. It is also used as a pesticide that poisons insects, fungus, and weeds. At high doses, Boric Acid causes testicular atrophy, impaired fetal skeletal development, and decreased birth weight in animals. In Europe, sodium borate and boric acid are not allowed to be used on peeling or irritated skin or in products for children under 3 years due to absorption concerns.


Sources:

https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0062-0004

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27466210

https://www.ewg.org/enviroblog/2011/02/borax-not-green-alternative-its-cracked-be#.WsqkjGaZPOQ

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr215.pdf

Boric Acid (Additional Names: Borax, Sodium Borate, Sodium Tetraborate or Disodium Tetraborate)


A preservative, emulsifier, and pH adjuster in cosmetics and personal care products.  It is also used as a pesticide that poisons insects, fungus, and weeds.  At high doses, Boric Acid causes testicular atrophy, impaired fetal skeletal development, and decreased birth weight in animals.  In Europe, sodium borate and boric acid are not allowed to be used on peeling or irritated skin or in products for children under 3 years due to absorption concerns.

 

Sources:

https://www.regulations.gov/document?D=EPA-HQ-OPP-2005-0062-0004

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27466210

https://www.ewg.org/enviroblog/2011/02/borax-not-green-alternative-its-cracked-be#.WsqkjGaZPOQ

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr215.pdf

Butoxyethanol (Additional Name: 2-Butoxyethanol)


Used as a solvent in hair dyes, nail polishes, lacquers, vanishes, and inks.  In one study, people exposed to high levels of 2-butoxyethanol for several hours reported irritation of the nose and eyes, headache, a metallic taste in their mouths, and vomiting.  Animal studies show destruction of red blood cells and damage to organs from exposure to butoxyethanol. 

Source:  

https://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_095.pdf

https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=346&tid=61

Butylparaben


In the paraben family of preservatives used in beauty products.  Butylparaben may mimic estrogen and act as a potential hormone (endocrine) system disruptor.  It has also been reported to have adverse effects on the male reproductive system in animal studies.

Sources:

https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/chem_background/exsumpdf/butylparaben_508.pdf

http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_041.pdf

http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/parabens/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29433019

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