A UV filter used in sunscreens and skincare with SPF to protect from short-wave UVB rays. It penetrates the skin and has been found in mother’s milk. Studies have shown that it may be a weak hormone-disruptor. More studies are needed to determine its long-term health effects on humans.
Hydroquinone is used in skin-lightening cosmetic products. It is also an impurity of synthetic tocopheryl acetate or tocopherol (vitamin E) synthesized using methylhydroquinone. While it has been classified as a carcinogen, in vitro and in vivo studies show that it exhibits some mutagenic properties. Hydroquinone is banned in the European Union.