Blacklisted Ingredients

All # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Ethanolamine Compounds (Additional Names: MEA/DEA/TEA)


Clear, colorless, thick liquids with ammonia-like odors.  At higher concentrations, ethanolamines may increase the risk of asthma and skin irritation.  They may break down in the product and form nitrosamines that are linked to cancer.


Sources:

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr594.pdf

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/PR575.pdf

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/PR604.pdf

https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/content/profiles/nitrosamines.pdf

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7709998

Ethoxylated Ingredients


Ethoxylated Ingredients are a group of ingredients made by the process of ethoxylation in which carcinogenic ethylene oxide is reacted with other ingredients to make them less harsh on the skin.  As a result of the ethoxylation process, 1,4-dioxane is created and can be left behind in the product.  1,4-dioxane can be reduced or removed from a product through the vacuum-stripping process.  But independent tests show that many manufacturers fail to do so.  The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) has classified 1,4-dioxane as “likely to be carcinogenic to humans.”  United States Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) studies showed that 1,4-dioxane can penetrate human skin. 


Sources: 

https://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductsIngredients/PotentialContaminants/ucm101566.htm

http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/14-dioxane/

https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=953&tid=199

https://www.organicconsumers.org/press/ocas-new-study-finds-greatly-reduced-carcinogens-personal-care-products

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) and its salts Calcium Disodium EDTA, Diammonium EDTA, Dipotassium EDTA, Disodium EDTA, Tetrasodium EDTA, Tripotassium EDTA, and Trisodium EDTA

Bind metal ions and help maintain clarity, protect fragrance compounds, and prevent rancidity of cosmetic and personal care products.  While they are not found to be harmful, they enhance the dermal penetration of other ingredients contained in a product. 


Sources:

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr285.pdf

Ethylparaben


Ethylparaben is in the paraben family of preservatives used in food, pharmaceuticals, and beauty products.  Clinical studies on animals have indicated that parabens may mimic estrogen and act as a potential hormone (endocrine) system disruptor.  


Sources:

http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_041.pdf

http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/parabens/

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29433019

Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is released by a number of cosmetic preservatives, including diazolidinyl urea, imidazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, quaternium-15, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, and sodium hydroxylmethylglycinate. The International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (“IARC”) has classified formaldehyde as 'carcinogenic to humans.' The American Society of Contact Dermatitis lists it as one of the core allergens, even in concentrations as low as 1%. Longer storage times and higher temperatures increase the amount of formaldehyde released from the formaldehyde-releasers.  



Sources:

https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr209.pdf


https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/formaldehyde.html


https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3563


http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/formaldehyde/


Formaldehyde-Releasing Preservatives (Additional Names: DMDM Hydantoin, Diazolidinyl Urea, Imidazolidinyl Urea, Quaternium-15, 2-Bromo-2-Nitropropane-1,3-Diol, Methenamine, and Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate)

Formaldehyde-releasing preservatives release a small amount of formaldehyde into a product over time. The International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (“IARC”) has classified formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans. The American Society of Contact Dermatitis lists it as one of the core allergens, even in concentrations as low as 1%. Longer storage times and higher temperatures increase the amount of formaldehyde released via the formaldehyde-releasers.  




Sources:


https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr209.pdf


https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/formaldehyde.html


https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3563


http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/formaldehyde/


Grapefruit Seed Extract (Additional Names: Citrus Paradisi (Grapefruit) Seed or Citrus Grandis (Grapefruit) Seed Extract or GSE)

An antimicrobial preservative used in cosmetic products. Numerous tests by independent researchers have shown that its antimicrobial properties are due to synthetic preservatives contained in it, not the extract itself. The synthetic preservatives found in GSE include benzalkonium chloride, triclosan, or methylparaben, which are all on our Blacklisted Ingredients list due to toxicity concerns.



Sources:


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10399191


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16719494


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16159196


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11453769


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18344660


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17867553


Homosalate (HMS)

A UV filter used in sunscreens and skincare with SPF to protect from short-wave UVB rays. It penetrates the skin and has been found in mother’s milk. Studies have shown that it may be a weak hormone-disruptor. More studies are needed to determine its long-term health effects on humans. 




Sources:


http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/homosalate/


https://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_097.pdf


https://www.ewg.org/sunscreen/report/the-trouble-with-sunscreen-chemicals/#.WrvtDGaZPOQ


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22612478


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15063329


http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/opinions/sccnfp_opinions_97_04/sccp_out145_en.htm



Hydroquinone

Hydroquinone is  used in skin-lightening cosmetic products. It is also an impurity of synthetic tocopheryl acetate or tocopherol (vitamin E) synthesized using methylhydroquinone. While it has been classified as a carcinogen, in vitro and in vivo studies show that it exhibits some mutagenic properties. Hydroquinone is banned in the European Union.



Sources:


http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10915810290169819


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18027166


http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/hydroquinone/


Imidazolidinyl Urea

An antimicrobial preservative that slowly releases carcinogenic formaldehyde into a product over time (see Formaldehyde). People may develop a contact allergy to formaldehyde or to the ingredient itself. The American Society of Contact Dermatitis lists it as one of its core allergens, even in concentrations as low as 2%. Longer storage times and higher temperatures increase the amount of formaldehyde released from the formaldehyde-releaser, which can lead to a higher risk of skin reaction.  

Sources:


https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr254.pdf

https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/formaldehyde.html

https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3563

http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/formaldehyde/

https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/chem_background/exsumpdf/imidazolidinylurea_508.pdf

Iodopropynyl Butylcarbamate (IPBC)

A preservative in cosmetic, personal care, and industrial products. It may cause dermal irritation or contact allergy. The American Society of Contact Dermatitis lists it as one of the core allergens, even in concentrations as low as 0.1%. When inhaled, it is toxic to the lungs.





Sources:


http://www.cosmeticsinfo.org/ingredient/iodopropynyl-butylcarbamate-0


https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/ctfa-static/online/lists/cir-pdfs/pr43.pdf


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12022126


https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3563


http://www.contactdermatitisinstitute.com/pdfs/allergens/Iodopropynyl%20butylcarbamate.pdf



Isobutylparaben

Isobutylparaben is in the parabens family of preservatives used in food, pharmaceuticals, and beauty products. Clinical studies on animals have indicated that parabens may mimic estrogen and act as a potential hormone (endocrine) system disruptor.  


Sources:


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jat.958


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jat.860


http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/parabens/


http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_041.pdf


Isopropylparaben

Isopropylparaben is in the parabens family of preservatives used in food, pharmaceuticals, and beauty products. There is some evidence that parabens can accumulate in human breast tissue. Clinical studies on animals have indicated that parabens may mimic estrogen and act as a potential hormone (endocrine) system disruptor.  


Sources:


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jat.958


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jat.860


http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/parabens/


http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_041.pdf





Japanese Honeysuckle Extract

An antimicrobial preservative used in natural cosmetic products. The Japanese honeysuckle plant naturally contains para-hydroxy benzoic acid (PHBA), which might behave in a very similar way to synthetic parabens (see Parabens) which themselves may mimic estrogen and act as potential hormone (endocrine) system disruptors.  


Sources:


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18021333


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16021681

Loose Powder Titanium Dioxide


 Used as a UV filter in sunscreens and as a pigment in makeup. Based on experimental evidence from animal inhalation studies, titanium dioxide nanoparticles are classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and as occupational carcinogen by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Thus, we do not use titanium dioxide in our powders.





Sources:





http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/titanium-dioxide-2/





https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol93/mono93.pdf




Mercury & Mercury compounds (Additional Names: Thimerosal)

 Mercury and Mercury Compounds are used as a preservative in vaccines and cosmetics. According to the Federal Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), mercury compounds are readily absorbed through the skin and accumulate in the body, increasing risks of various adverse health effects including the disruption of the nervous system. They may also cause allergic reactions and skin irritation. Mercury is considered particularly toxic to the developing brain during pregnancy, infancy and childhood. The FDA has banned the use of mercury compounds in all cosmetics except those used around the eyes, where levels are limited to 65 parts per million (ppm).


Sources:


https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=700.13


https://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/GuidanceRegulation/LawsRegulations/ucm127406.htm

Methenamine

An antimicrobial preservative that slowly releases carcinogenic formaldehyde into a product over time (see Formaldehyde). People may develop a contact allergy to formaldehyde or to the ingredient itself. Longer storage times and higher temperatures increase the amount of formaldehyde released from the formaldehyde-releaser, which can lead to a higher risk of skin reaction.  


Sources:


http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scher/docs/scher_o_054.pdf


https://online.personalcarecouncil.org/jsp/CIRList.jsp?id=302


https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/formaldehyde.html


https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3563


http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/formaldehyde/


Methylchloroisothiazolinone/Methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI)

A preservative mixture commonly used in cosmetic products, household cleaning products, and industrial applications. Due to its extensive use, the number of allergic reaction cases caused by MCI/MI or MI alone has been increasing. MI was the American Contact Dermatitis Society Contact Allergen of the Year for 2013.  

In addition, studies show that prolonged exposure to low levels of MI may have damaging consequences to the developing nervous system. 



Sources:


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4056723/


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4689087/


https://www.contactderm.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageID=3563


http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_145.pdf


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16547166


http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/317/3/1320


Methylparaben

Methylparaben is in the parabens family of preservatives used in food, pharmaceuticals, and beauty products. There is some evidence that parabens can accumulate in human breast tissue. Clinical studies on animals have indicated that parabens may mimic estrogen and act as a potential hormone (endocrine) system disruptor.  


Sources:


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jat.958


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jat.860


http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/parabens/


http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_041.pdf


Mineral Oil

A liquid mixture obtained from crude petroleum oil used as a skin moisturizer. It may contain various amounts of carcinogenic PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and other petroleum contaminants, depending on the level to which it has been refined. There is consistent evidence that untreated or mildly-treated mineral oils cause cancer of the skin in humans. 



Sources:


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK304428/


https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/csem.asp?csem=13&po=11


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